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Type 2 Diabetes Insulin Medications

While injecting insulin is a treatment option normally associated with type 1 diabetes, some people with type 2 diabetes may need to use insulin. If you have type 2 diabetes and have trouble controlling your blood glucose levels with meal plan changes, exercise, and medications, then your healthcare provider may suggest insulin.

injectable insulin Insulin injections and inhalable insulin activate insulin receptors, increase glucose disposal, and decrease glucose production. Here are the types of insulin on the market:

Rapid-acting inhalables

Names: insulin human (Afrezza)

Onset (time it takes to reach bloodstream): 15 mins

Peak (most effective time frame): 30 mins-1.5 hrs

Duration (how long it works): 3-5 hrs

Benefits: inhaled

Possible side effects: sudden lung problems (acute bronchospasm)

Notes: taken with meals; contraindicated for patients with long-term lung disease such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD.
 

Rapid-acting analogs

Names: lispro (Humalog); aspart (Novolog); glulisine (Apidra) 

Onset: 10-30 mins

Peak: 30 mins-1.5 hrs

Duration: 3-5 hrs

Benefits: nearly universal response.

Possible side effects: hypoglycemia; weight gain; redness, swelling, itching at injection site.

Notes: requires training; injectable.

Short-acting analogs

Name: human regular (Humilin R)

Onset: 30 mins-1 hr

Peak: 2-3 hrs

Duration: < 8 hrs.

Benefits: Nearly universal response.

Possible side effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain, redness, swelling, itching at injection site.

Notes: requires training, injectable.

lntermediate-acting analogs

Name: humanNPH (Humilin N)

Onset: 1.5-4 hrs

Peak: 4-12 hrs

Duration: < 24 hrs

Benefits: nearly universal response

Possible side effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain, redness, swelling itching at injection site.

Notes: requires training; injectable.

Basal Insulin long-acting analog

Names: glargine (Lantus, Basaglar); degludec (Tresiba); detemir (Levemir)

Onset: 0.8-4 hrs

Peak: minimal peak

Duration: <24 hrs-48 hrs

Benefits: nearly universal response

Possible side effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain, redness, swelling itching at injection site.

Notes: requires training; injectable.


 

Updated on: April 30, 2018
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Type 2 Diabetes Oral Medications
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